Expanding the evidence base with data from more than 2,000 organizations
The ESO Data Collaborative consists only of entities that have voluntarily agreed to allow use of their de-identified records for research and benchmarking purposes. In 2020, the Collaborative included data from over 2,000 EMS agencies, fire departments, and hospitals.
Annual Research Dataset
Built from the ESO Data Collaborative for research use and is made available in the second quarter of the following year.
Access to the Research Dataset
Access to this dataset is provided following a research proposal process and review from the Research Leadership Group.
ESO Data Collaborative Research Projects
The ESO Data Collaborative has powered more than 70 research projects.
Annual Public Use Research Dataset
Each year, a standardized core dataset is built from the ESO Data Collaborative for research use and is made available in the second quarter of the following year. Access to this dataset is provided following a research proposal process and review from the Research Leadership Group.
Over 8 million encounters in the dataset
The 2019 ESO Data Collaborative public release research dataset contained 8,340,148 EMS encounters. The majority of included EMS responses occurred in the South (58%) US Census region, followed by the Midwest (22%), West (16%) and Northeast (5%). Based on the US Census urbanicity categorizations, most encounters occurred in urbanized areas (76%) or urban clusters (18%).
Linking hospital outcome info with HDE
Approximately, 17% of records with EMS emergency response and patient transport had linked hospital outcome information through the HDE software, with representation from 25% of all agencies participating in the Data Collaborative.
More than 70 research projects
The ESO Data Collaborative has powered more than 70 research projects, including award-winning presentations at national conferences and peer-reviewed manuscripts in journals like Prehospital Emergency Care, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Resuscitation, and Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians Open.
Pain Management Annual Report
Using the 2019-2020 ESO Data Collaborative, this study examines out-of-hospital analgesic administration among emergency medical services (EMS) records for 9-1-1 advanced life support transport of adult patients diagnosed with long bone fractures. All patients were diagnosed with long bone fractures (humerus, radius/ulna, femur, or tibia/fibula) at the emergency department, resulting in a total of 35,711 records between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2020 included in this analysis. This hospital outcome data was directly linked to the EMS records through ESO’s Health Data Exchange software. Analgesic administration primarily rests within the control and discretion of attending EMS clinicians. The researchers found that EMS administered pain medication to 72% of White patients with severe pain compared to just 59% of Black patients with severe pain. These disparities were not explained by differences in clinical presentations, patient preferences, or community socioeconomic conditions.
Sodium bicarbonate administration is associated with improved survival in asystolic and PEA Out-of-Hospital cardiac arrest
The role of sodium bicarbonate (bicarb) in cardiac arrest has long been a controversial topic with limited evidence. The latest guidance from the American Heart Association does not support routine use of bicarb in cardiac arrest, but could there still be a time and a place for this medication? Like the answer to many questions – it probably depends.
A recent study published in Resuscitation used data from more than 1,300 EMS agencies in the ESO Data Collaborative to dig deeper into the effects of bicarb use in cardiac arrest. The study used the ESO Data Collaborative to analyze electronic health records from more than 1,300 agencies between 2019-2020. The Researchers considered cases of patients with cardiac arrest and resuscitations that lasted 5–40 minutes. They stratified the analysis based on presenting electrocardiogram (ECG) rhythms: ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT), pulseless electrical activity (PEA), or asystole.
Out of Hospital Ketamine Indications for Use, Patient Outcomes, and Associated Mortality
The objective of this study was to describe prehospital ketamine use, patient outcomes, and the potential contribution of ketamine to patient death. In this sample of more than 11,000 patients across the U.S. who received prehospital ketamine, the most common indication was for trauma/pain (49%, 5,575), followed by altered mental status/behavioral (34%, 3,795), cardiovascular/pulmonary (13%, 1,454), seizure (2%, 248), and other indications (2%, 219). Doses observed fell within accepted therapeutic ranges and nearly all patients were transported to a hospital. Ketamine could not be ruled out as a contributing factor in 2 on scene deaths (0.02% of exposures) and 6 hospital deaths (0.3% of exposures). Following ketamine administration, hypoxia and hypercapnia were documented in 8.4% (897) and 17.2% (1,311) of patients, highlighting the importance of continuous SpO2 and EtCO2 monitoring.
Access to the entire bibliography
View the entire bibliography of ESO Data Collaborative powered works and request reprints.
ESO Research Leadership Group Volunteers
The use of the data from the Data Collaborative is governed by the ESO Research Leadership Group (RLG). The RLG is comprised of volunteers who are leaders in the industry and are charged with evaluation of requests for utilization of the Collaborative to assure the data are sufficient to answer the intended question as well as to assure appropriate constraints regarding commercial bias and potential conflicts of interest.
All members are serving as individuals and are not representing any organization.
- Amy Hanifan BS
- Elizabeth Donnelly PhD
- Henry Wang MD
- Jason Moats PhD
- Jeff Jarvis MD
- Joelle Donofrio-Ödmann MD
- Jonathan Stallings, PhD
- Kate Remick MD
- Lawrence Brown PhD
- Robin Garza RN